As we enter into this next day be sure to thank the Lord for all we have.
Carry out the tasks for the day. We will work on explorers carried on from yesterday. Be sure to go over what the weather will be and do your pretend broadcasts together. A new song for the younger ones goes like this: "Use your eyes, use your eyes, You can look and see: If you have on...then call out a color and have them come and sit beside you as you sing- Come and sit by me. ( the color of course can change each day)
Do the Childrobotics in which you do a daily routine of excersizes, stretches or activity as a walk or bike ride ect. Then go into your Creative dance lessons in which you turn on some music and following each other in a train style walk then run a little, then do it again. Then do some leaps and jumps; alternating it with the walks and running. Then do some skips and hops alternating them with walks, running, leaps and jumps. Lastly do some gallops and some slides alternating these with all the rest. Tomorrow you will do all seven elements of step. Anyone that is just joining us can go back in the past days and catch all the information about Creative dance that is necessary.
History, Social Studies, Art, Writing
We are learning about the Explorers that were traveling the seas and some landing in North America and why they were on the voyages. Be sure and view the past days if you are just joining us. We had just began to learn about the different explorers yesterday. Now in this history book1004 it is told that "Prince Henry of Portugal brought together mapmakers and sailors from all over Europe to help sailors from Portugal explore the coast of Africa. Vasco da Gama reached Asia by sailing around Africa. His father had been asked by the king of Portugal to lead the voyage. Da Gama took over after his father died.Vasco da Gama ten years after Bartolomeu Dias sailed pas the southern tip of Africa and that was in 1487 twenty years after Prince Henry "The Navigator" had died.
Now Christopher Columbus was born in Italy and became a sailor. He was thinking that sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean would be a shorter, faster way to reach Asia. He did not know there was land in between. He had asked the king of Portugal for ships first but Portugal's king thought he was wrong and so Columbus asked Queen Isabella of Spain. After six years of asking, Queen Isabella let him have three ships and ninety sailors. Columbus's ships were the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria and he set sail in August of 1492. Because Columbus thought it was a lot shorter across the Atlantic Ocean, by October 9, 1492, the sailors were so frightened they told Columbus he must turn back to Spain. Columbus promised that he would turn back if they did not see land in three days which they did on October 12, 1492. Columbus thought he had landed on an Island out of India. He put a large cross and a Spanish flag on the island and said the land belonged to Spain. It was the Island of San Salvador in the Caribbean Sea which the people of the island were friendly. They were called the Tainos. He called them Indians because he thought he had landed in India. Because a native was wearing a piece of gold on his nose Columbus figured there was gold somewhere and one native told him a Chief living south had gold. Columbus never found much Gold and they treated the natives very bad trying to find it. Columbus had made three trips to the Islands looking for this gold. He took some natives to learn the language. He had always thought it was India even till the day he died. After 1492 Amerigo Vespucci came from Italy and sailed for Portugal. Vespucci explored the coast of South America and discovered Columbus was wrong about it being India. He said it was another continent and called it a "New World." Vespucci wrote about his discovery and a mapmaker read his work and decided to name the New continents America after Amerigo Vespucci. He traveled in 1499. We read about Ferdinand Magellan who travelled South and around South America clear across the Pacific ocean and to the south tip of Africa and back to Portugal. The were actually to sailed clear around the world. He traveled in 1519 and this was considered. to circumnavigate. Spain and Portugal were began to argue about which one would rule the new lands that were found. The both wanted to rule different colonies in other parts of the world. The gold and spices found would make the richer. Therefore a leader of the Roman Catholic Church, Pope Alexander VI, drew a line on a map from north to south dividing the Atlantic Ocean in half. The Pope said Spain would rule all new land that was found to the west of the line. Portugal to the east of the line. . This treaty was called the Treaty of Tordesillas. Portugal and Spain signed it in 1494. However after Pedro Cabral landed in the country called Brazil it was the only country that could be ruled by Portugal. Cabot thought he would find a Northern Route to Asia, he couldn't find it but he navigated Canada a lot. France sent Jacques Caartier in search of the Northwest Passage. He never found it either . He explored the St. Lawrence River and claimed all the land around for France. Samuel de Champlain made eleven trips to America for France and started the French city of Quebec in Canada. Rene-robert Cavalier also known as La Salle moved to Canada at the age of 23. In 1682 he explored the entire Mississippi River, the longest river in the United States. He sailed in the area of the Great Lakes and clear down through Louisiana naming it after King Louis XIV of France, claiming a large part off America. In 1528, Spanish explorer Panfilo de Narvaez took 400 men on a search for gold in Florida. They never found it and were attacked by natives. They got on rafts and sailed towards Mexico and got caught in a Hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico. All but four slaves had died. One survivor of the four, Estevanico, led them into Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. They traveled for eight years and someone told them of a place called Cibola. Natives gave him gifts because the thought he was a god because he was black and very tall. They traveled south in search of it and never found it. When the reached Mexico City because the governor of Mexico wanted to find the gold he asked a priest, Fater Marcos de Niza, to search for Cibola. Father Niza asked Estevanico to travel with him. Estevanico went ahead of the others. He sent word back of tall houses covered with beautiful stones. Estevanico was killed by Zuni natives in one of the villages he visited.
More people and more vocabulary include Herman Cortes, Moctezuma, Francisco Pizarro, Ponce de Leon, Hernando de Soto, Francisco de Coronado, Father Junipero Serra, Pope, Henry Hudson, Bartolome de Las Casas and words of conquistadors, smallpox, settlement, plantations, Creoles, Mestizos, mulattoes, viceroys, missions, revolt, civil wars, peasants, and Huguenots.
Now the conquistadors or conquerors began to explor and conquer land in America for Spain. Spain wanted to find gold, teach the Catholic religion to the Natives and to make Spain more powerful. Hernan Cortes landed in Mexico with about 500 soldiers in 1519. He led his men through tick jungles to reach the Aztec capital called Tenochtitlan. Because Moctezuma, the Aztec emperor, thought Cortes might be a god he did not try to capture Cortes, but gave him gold instead. By 1521 Cortes had conquered Mexico and destroyed the entire city of Tenochtitlan. Mexico city was built in place calling it New Spain. The Aztec lost mainly because Cortes and horses, guns, and iron weapons. The Spanish also brought diseases as smallpox and measles, which were new to the natives. The spread fast and killed thousands.
Francisco Pizarro, another conquistador, climbed the Andes Mountains with 180 soldiers and conquered the Inca in 1530. Then they made the natives slaves. Hernando de Soto, another conquistador, searched for Cibola in 1539. He traveled clear to the Mississippi before it was claimed by La Salle. Never found gold but claimed that whole southeast area to Spain.
Francisco de Coronado, another conquistador, searched for Cibola from 1540 to 1542. Witt 300 soldiers he explored what is now the Southwest of the United States. When reaching the place that was supposed to be Cibola instead of gold all they found were Native villages made of mud and clay. Spain claimed a large colony in the Southwest and started a settlement called Santa Fe in 1610. Therefore, by 1542 Spain ruled a huge empire in America. Most had settled in Mexico, Central America, and South America where gold and silver were found. They started huge sugar cane and tobacco plantations in which they slaved the people to work them and later brought in African slaves. Fewer came to America. There became different classes of people. The highest class was the rich nobles born in Spain. They held the highest government jobs. The next class was the Creoles, Spanish people who were born in America. The mestizos, who had both Native American and Spanish parents. Indians, Africans and Mulattoes were considered the lowest class. Mulattoes were a combination of African and Spanish or African and Native American parents. King of Spain chose governors called viceroys to rule different parts of the empire, they carried out laws Spain wrote for the colonies that told them what crops to grow, where they could build towns and how they should treat Natives. Viceroys were very strict. Spain wanted the Natives to be Catholics. The Spanish built missions to teach the religion and built forts around them to protect them from the natives. The Spanish did not respect the Natives and their beliefs. In 1769 things changed, Father Junipero Serra started a chain of missions in California. He traveled on foot from one to another. He always made sure the Natives were treated fairly. At the missions, priests taught Natives how to raise sheep, goats, and cattle in addition to the religion.
The Natives before had been angry about the treatment. Pope, a Pueblo Native, led a revolt against the Spanish in 1680; 8,000 natives attacked the Spanish in New Mexico and forced them to leave Santa Fe until 1696. During this time before there was an important exchange. The Spanish were given potatoes, tomatoes, corn, turkeys, tobacco, squash, cocoa, peanuts, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and ponchos for horses, cows, goats, chickens, sheep, metal tools, guns, bananas, wheat, oranges, printing presses. The Spanish had settlements in America about one hundred years before other European settlers.
The French were a little slow in settling colonies in America. They were fighting other wars in Europe. There were also civil wars in France between the Catholic and the Protestants. However, the king of France decided he needed to compete with Spain trying to gain wealth and teach the Natives the Catholic religion. Therefore they took into the North regions. They never found gold but started a trend of beaver hats. By selling beaver fur in Europe, the French became rich. They traped and traded for beaver furs. The French Empire was called New France. It was a huge colony. It included land all around the Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Great Lakes, and the St. Lawrence River. They could travel it by canoe. The natives were treated better there also. French settlements began when Samuel de Champlain started Quebec in 1608. Forts and trading posts were built. the king of France would only allow the nobles to own land in America.French peasants, or poor people, did not want to be settlers. French law did not allow the Huguenots, or Protestants, to settle in America only the Catholics. The king of France again also chose governors to rule New France and like the Spanish viceroys, they were very strict. People again had little freedom. However, they had a better relationship with each other. They started missions to teach the religion but they were not forced to live and work at the missions. They were not made slaves. Often the French lived in the woods with the natives to trap beavers. The rench learned the native languages and often married the Native women. The learned to build canoes and make snowshoes. However, they became enemies of the Iroquois nations when Samuel de Champlain joined with other tribes against the Iroquois.
With Henry Hudson came the Dutch, the people of the Netherlands, claiming to rule the land around the Hudson River. The Dutch colony was called New Netherlands and the started a town on the island of Manhattan called New Amsterdam. In 1626 the bought it from the Natives for only $24 worth of knives, beads, and other goods. Many different people settled there bringing 18 different languages. It grew slowly. In 1664 . As time went on land was taken from the natives. Europeans grew and grew. Bartolome de Las Casas became famous for speaking out against using natives as slaves. He was born in Spain and he came with Columbus as a young teenager. He became a landowner and became a priest in 1510, the first Catholic priest of America. He argued with the Spanish over the treatment of the Natives. Las Casas traveled to Spain and advised the king, Charles I, to end Indian slavery. Which the king did write laws to end slavery, but it was difficult carry them out. When Las Casas returned to America, he wrote books-one famous called In Defense of the Indians. He worked till his death and was given the title"Protector of the Indians." One assignment was to write the difference in their treatment. If this information is too much at one time you may have to break it up within a few days. Mark things down on charts or paper to keep track. If you want to use it as I give time events to you later. That is ok also. Make tabs as you read helps. Maybe make tabs to hunt and talk about each, an outline or whatever. helps. Tomorrow I will type up questions to ask each other or just the children. Later we will read other books and do more activities. One idea I came up with was to make little hand made ships of the children's choice let them make them. use cardboard, poster board, bathroom tubes for stands, popscicle sticks anything you can plastic bottles can even be cut or plastic lids. Use a map or globe and pretend to move the ships along in different directions of the play. Have them tell if they are moving North, South, East, or West. Maybe pretend they are looking for a treasure. Use role play to learn the material. Any actions you can think of. Talk about beavers and the various rivers, land, and lakes within the history. My end has lots of beautiful pictures. Maybe you can find various books or pictures to use. Be sure to find the vocabulary.
If there is time you can carry out your insect explorations and water animal adventures. One fun activities in Canada and California, Mexico ocean views are the whales and the sharks along with the coral reefs and the fish as well as sea turles, Monterey's, shrimp fishing, clams, molusks, seals ect. I learned a lot about Canada through a travel guide that a planned a trip from. Book 1004 explains it very well though. I wish I had given you the event records first though.. Talk about breakfasts of the different cultures of this learning also. We will cover Book 1 birthdays and events for the weekend also if we have time. Take care!