Science, Social Studies, History, Reading, Language, Writing
Today I am going to give the birthdays and 1700' events for September 21, 22, and 23. Starting Tuesday or Wednesday, I will have the rest of the events for the year happening in the 1700's for you to cut apart and be able to hang. Today and maybe for a few days though we are going to back-up a little and learn some things about the Natives. They were very special and many of us feel bad that they were not respected and many were corrupted by the Spanish in giving them alcohol to drink. They had a lot to offer to us and we did not know better at the time. Many of the adventures moving across our country did learn from them and could live very well among them and respected them.
Before I go into the lessons about them I want to first tell you to look at your own birthdays and see if there is any celebration in mind. Fall has arrived this weekend and I believe here anyway the temperture is dropping some. Book 1 says that, "During the autumnal equinox, the sun is in the plane of the earth's equator, and day and night are of equal length throughout the world.As part of an activity they suggest making a list of the things you like to see, hear, smell, taste, and touch in fall." These will also lead us into learning about ourselves and the five senses we have. They ask you to create an acrostic poem based on the word fall or autumn. Then you can read them and some others you may have a collection of or find. One favorite book is Chicken Noodle Soup and the Giving Tree. While you are at the library or about you might look for more books about the first 13 states, especially Maine, Massachussets, Connecticut, New York, and Virginia. Also look for books on Canada and Mexico because we will be going into those countries soon. I learned a lot about Canada in reading a tour book and planning a trip throughout. If have not learned something from my video in the Social Study blog about Iceland you may want to take a peak. There is one section on there were another lady talks and gives you a full tour of it. I love the song that is played with him juggling. He was on the Today show a few weeks back and has done a few other tours also. The first 13 states were Maine, Massassuchets, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Make sure your older students are learning their words of vocabulary and the elementary learning some spelling and sounds of words. Be sure and talk about the exceptions that do not follow the rules. Maybe you will learn some significance between the different languages. Many languages like Spanish, Italian, and others came from the Latin language. One other thing I tell you for right now on spanish words with tion at the end of word are the same in Spanish only they use cion.
Remember this week is Dog week and it is National cat week. Therefore, you may be able to some activities involving them.
Saturday was also World Gratitude Day which book 1 says, "Businesswoman Edna Fuerth Lemle established World Gratitude Day in 1965. Her concept was for people of all nations and religions to unite in a expression of gratitude." They suggest designing "peace cards"-postcards with an illustration of gratitude or human rights and a message of peace. You could do a big poster also or in place.
Now for the birthdays, September 21, 1756 John McAdam, Scottish inventor of the macadam road-making system was born. As part of his birthday you could work on your town or map or poster of a town. Another activity is to review what we learned about the directions and talk about weather mains on top of roofs and what they meant to people. Look at the different graffics on maps and what they tell you like highways, state highways, freeways or interstates, and other roads. How they also have ways of measure the distance of travel and mountains, rivers. These kinds of things are on all kinds of maps.
In 1866 of the 21 H.G. Wells, British science fiction writer was born. That same day in 1908 Taro Yashima, Children's author was born and in 1947 the famous Stephen King, American novelist noted for his horror stories was born. I have quite a collection of those as many people do. My own children loved to read them along with Hiriam Potter.
Then in 1927 on September 22, Tommy Lasorda, professional baseball player and manager. The two popular sports this time of year are basebal and soccer but there are many others you probably have on your list. I hope you are enjoying a few of them.
In 1960 on that day Joan Jett, singer and musician was born. Then Monday September 23, Augustus Caesar, the first Roman emperor was born in 63 BC. Then in 1838 of that day and want this memorated, Victoria Claflin Woodhull, the first woman presidntial candidate in the United States, was born. Then in 1932 Ray Charles, American pianist, singer, and composer was born along with Bruce Springsteen, American singer, guitarist, and songwriter was born in 1949. Now Book 1 says,"Ray Charles, who lost his eyesight as a small boy has been a successful musician in jazz, rhythm, and blues, country, and pop. Many may have seen him in ads, on TV and such. This would be a good time to talk about different music and what you like. This may be good and tie into our lesson today for Creative dance as you think about different moves with your bodies to these different forms of music. Be sure to do some Childrobotics also.
Now on that day, September 23 in 1492 is when Columbus's crew saw a dove, leading them to think land was near on the first voyage to America. On September 22, 1776, Nathan Hale, American patriot and Revolutionary War spy, was hanged by the British.
Then in 1789 The U.S. Post Office was established. Book 1 wants you to sort and categorize your mail into letters, cards, bills, magazines, and "junk mail." This would be a good time to divide these into different folders, boxes , or storage to help get organized and put important mail, letters, cards, bills to pay in other areas. I also want you to talk about the Pony Express and what it was. You may be able to find a story about it.
Now as part of study on our earliest times from book 1004 we already learned about some of the natives that our explorers met up with. The book says that 50,000 years ago most of North American was covered with huge sheets of ice. Scientists also believe that the great rivers as Missouri and Mississippi were frozen glaciers also. They called it the Ice Age. Now we are having a problem of hemisphere is opening up from industry and letting too much of the suns rays in on the glaciers and letting them melt and fall off. Talk a little bit about what that will mean for us her in North America and why it is not affecting the other lands as much.
I want you to make lists again of People including: Native Americans, Pueblos, Mound Builders, Iroquois, Maya, Aztec, Inca, Hiawatha, Tadodaho, and Peacemaker. Then another list of Places: Bering Sea, Mississippi River, Rocky Mountains, Great PLains, Ohio River, Mexico, Tenochtitlan, Andes Mountains, and Peru. Last make a list of Vocabulary: archaeologists, artifacts, gatherers, culture, irrigation canals, totem poles, survive, tepees, confederation, civilization, pyramids, human sacrifices, empire, and terraces.
We will focus on these Ideas:
1. What is known about the first Americans?
2. How did Native American life differ in the Southwest, the Northwest, the Great Plains, and east of the Mississippi River?
3. What kinds of civilizations did Native Americans build in Mexico, Central America, and South America?
Book 1004 says, "Archaeologists believe that people first came to America between 20,000 and 50,000 years ago." They believe they walked across a land bridge from Asia to North America where the Bering Sea is today and Alaska almost touches Asia. The Earth's climate became wormer and the Ice Age ended. our rivers began to melt and now we have soft Limestone that breaks away easily here in our area. As all this Ice melted it made the level of the sea rise and the land bridge at the Bering Sea disappeared. Now the people of the earlies times as we mentioned before had no way of knowing how to write but eventually drew pictures. Maybe that is how the Japanese, Chinese, and other languages began with forming lines into pictures. I have some to give you later. Book 1004 also says, " Archaeologists have found bones from people who lived in America thousands of years ago. They have also found tools that these early people made. By studying bones, tools, and other artifacts, archaeologists have learned a lot about the earliest Americans." They found out they had fished and hunted . They also found out they were what they called gatherers, like wild berries, nuts, and plant roots for food. They found out the first people had moved from place to place to wherever the food was. Then things changed when they learned to plant seeds and grow food; they stayed in one place to farm.
The Natives had moved out throughout the whole area of North America and South America, learning different ways to live and do. How they dressed, ate, and spoke all was different. They believe the first that settled were called the Pueblos and they built apartment homes on cliffs of mountains. To protect themselves from preditors they made the doors high off the ground and they had to be entered by ladders that they just pulled inside when danger came. These are found in the deep part of the south Rocky Mountains around Durango, Colorado. Because there was not much rain there the learned to build irrigation ditches to capture the water and give to the plants, ect. These were called irrigation canals. They grew beans and corn some of the natives favorite foods even today. Beans could be stored anytime and are very nutricious.
Natives of the Northwest and along the Pacific Ocean did not worry much about farming because they always had fish to eat and forest to hunt in. They collected nuts and wild berries. They built wooden homes with the forest wood and canoes to travel in. They were very religious and built large tall totem poles. They took the bark from the trees and made them very soft into clothing.
The natives of the Plains Area had to live a lot different because the had cold winters and hot summers to contend with. However, they had buffalo to survive on, millions of them. They ate their meat, dressed in their fur and used it for bedding. They built homes called tepees of the skin. They did not have horses at that time so they had to run and walk after the buffalo. Where the buffallo moved so did the Natives until some bad white men came in and killed too many of the buffalo for the furs to sell and left the carcasses to rot and stink and waste away the food for the Natives. They are finally beginning to get the buffalo to come back into existance from that horrible tragedy well enough when the white people came into the areas they needed food to survive; many people.
East of the Mississippi Natives lived a little different. There was plenty of forests and they lived near the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. They built big mounds to live in, sometimes 50 feet high. They were called Mound Builders. Temples were built at the top of some mounds. Important people were buried in the mounds. Because pearls were found in their villages they believe they had learned to trade because pearls came from the ocean. This had happened by the late 1500s.
The Mound builders were replaced by other tribes. One of those tribes were the Iroquois. The Iroquois hunted animals in the forests. They were also farmers. They would clear the land by burning the stumps after cutting the trees. They planted corn, beans, and squash they called the "Three Sisters." The Iroquois lived in homes called longhouses. As many as twenty families would live together in a longhouse. Each family had its own little apartment. All the families were related to each other. The oldest woman in the longhouse became the leader of all the families in the house. There were many different Iroguois nations. Often they had wars with each other creating many years of war, The attacks from the five nations of Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Onondaga happened so often it was unsafe for anyone. Then one Iroquois man named Hiawatha, believed the Iroquois could stop fighting and become peaceful between each other. However, the leader of the Onondaga nation, Tadodaho, became angry with Hiawatha's ideas about peace and had all of Hiawatha's daughters killed. Hiawatha was so grieved over his daughter's he went to live in the a small house in the forest. Then he met Peacemaker, another man from another Native nation. Hiawatha and Peacemaker pulled together and traveled about the different tribes talking to them and getting them to join a confederation that would work for peace. Hiawatha was the good speaker so he convinced four of the nations to join together. Then he faced is old enemy Tadodaho and speaking softly to him he convinced him to join the conferations. Chiefs which were chosen by the women were sent to represent them at the council meetings. Laws were made and problems between nations were solved. They all kept this peace for 300 years.
Native Americans of Mexico, Central America, and South America-
Thick rain forests cover parts of Mexico and Central America and they are hot and rainy. People of the Maya civilization built something very amazing. Between 300 A.D. and 900 A.D.they built beautiful cities. They studied math and invented a calendar; The first to develop a system of writing using small pictures to write their language. They built huge pyramids where they buried their dead kings. Temples were built on top of some of the pyramids. Maya prayed to many gods in the temples, mainly the sun god of the most importance. They felt they had to make human sacrifices to the sun god so that it would continue to shine. About the year 900 people left the cities and the civilization ended. No one know why. People from the Mayan families still live in Mexico and Central America.
The Aztec were Native Americans who built a great civilization in Mexico also. They conquered and ruled a large empire. It included almost 11 million people. They developed a system for writing their language. They were great builders also with huge pyramids and temples. The capital, Tenochtitlan was built on an island of a lake. Bridges connected the city to the mainland. It contained large temples, houses and government buildings . It was larger and cleaner than any city in europe at that time. They believed in many gods , but the sun god and the war god were the most important. The Aztec believed these gods needed human sacrifices also. They sacrificed thousands of people each year. They went to war in order to capture people to sacrifice.
The Inca were Native Americans who built an empire that extended through the Andes Mountains of South America. Their capital was in the country now called Peru. They spocke the same language and obeyed the same king. They built roads to connect the cities in the empire. They built bridges across deep valleys, for they lived in very tall mountains. They built terraces on the sides of the mountains to grow food in and built irrigation canals to get water to their farms. They took care of their people and old people were not allowed to go hungry. By the time Columbus and the explorers arrived the Native Americans live throughout North and South America speaking hundreds of languages and had different cultures. No one in either lands knew about each other.
Here are some fill in activities to do. Tomorrow we will start with some hands on activities.
Vocabulary-Finish the sentence. Use these words to fill in the blanks: (some are not used)
empire, culture, archaeologist, totem poles, tepee, irrigation canal, confederation, pyramids, artifact
1. An_________________________ studies old bones and villages to learn how people lived long ago.
2. An ____________________________ is a tool or object that was made by a person.
3. How people live, what they eat, and how they dress are all parts of the _______________________
of a group.
4. An _________________________________is a ditch that carries water to dry land so people can grow crops.
5. An _____________________________ is land or people that are ruled by one nation.
6. A ____________________________ is a tent that is made from animal skins and bones.
7. Native Americans of the Northwest used carved and painted _______________________________
as symbols of their families.
8. The Iroquois joined together as a ______________________________ to keep peace.
Finish the Paragraph
Use the folowing words to fill in the blanks of the paragraph:( one is not used)
buffalo, Maya, gatherers, Bering Sea, burning, cotton, villages
Between 20,000 and 50,000 years ago, people first came to America by crossing the _____________
________________on a land bridge. These people were _________________________because they
moved from place to place searching for food. After people learned to farm they started to live in
______________________. The Native Americans of the Great Plains hunted ____________________.
In the eastern forests, Native Americans farmed by first chopping down trees and then
______________________ the stumps. The __________________________ built a civilization in
Mexico and Cental America.
Fill in the blank with the following words to name the exclaimation used:(One word will not be used)
Pueblo, Iroquois, Inca, Aztec, Mound Builders
1._________________________________lived in longhouses, planted corn, beans, and squash. They joined a confederation.
2. ________________________________lived in the Southwest of the United States, built apartment houses and built irrigation canals.
3.________________________________capital city was Tenochtitlan, ruled an empire in Mexico, and believed in many gods.
4. _______________________________grew food on mountain terraces, ruled a huge empire in
South America, and built roads to connect cities.
One assignment book 1004 suggested is for the children to journal a section of their social study notebook that explains the importance of Hiawatha's work among the Iroquois nations. Another thing they suggested is for the children to write a paragraph in their journal that explains with which Native American tribe would they want to have lived with if they had of had to.