Hello! I am sorry I meant to have this out earlier. I happen to be sick for a day and had to finish it late again. Hopefully this next week is better and I can get ahead some. Today we are going to cover many topics so be prepared. Make sure you say your prayers together and read the bible or necessary books. Be sure and do your daily tasks or responsibilities
Do your Childrobotics and get ready to do some dancing if you are prepared. If you are not ready to start teaching the children anything yet you can let the children try some instruments or make some maracas from plastic bottles with stones in it. Later if you do not have any or get any, they can also be made from a dried squash. If you have a drum of some kind or something to help keep a beat it helps in the beginning. The author of the book and most teachers know there is going to be a certain amount of noise and excitement about things. Be prepared and figure a way that is not yelling to have control.(Most children ignore yelling after a certain amount of time.) Either a piano key, the music stopped or snapping the fingers. plain quietness. or a clap of hands. Use a low firm voice when talking to them. Do not try to dance a whole dance through as demonstration. If you have to demonstrate a movement, try to make it as one to just a few at a time. Clothing should not be something too tight that does give them movement or gets in their way. If they want leotards, or gym clothes on that is ok, long pants for winter might be smart, even a swim suit can substitute. These can all be worn under worm clothes for later. However, I always found a swim suit uncomfortable. Sweats are always good in winter when the weather is cooler. The author of the book Creative dancing says not to let them wear socks because they can slide too easy with them on. Barefeet or tennis shoes are better because they have tracktion. When my daughter was in baton the instructor suggestion the thin layer canvas tennis shoes because she said they give the foot plenty of movement and less heavy and hot. However, most children wear the heavier ones today for gym. The author mentions that movement promotes learning. Children fight off stress just like parents through movement in play. She said that she liked the imitation until she realized the expressions on their faces were not theirs but what they were imitating and she felt it was better to imitate their feelings in the dance. She said, "Dance is not about somrthing. Dance is something. then i wondered why the chidren responded by pretending rather than by dancing. Revrlation comes with the discovery that dance teaching must be involved primarily with movement education, exploration, and development. Only after the children learn the scope of dance and the vocabulary of the elements, oly after they have experimented with the caft of dance can they relate dance to other areas through imagery. This relating is a second step. This does not reclude using images to lead to the understanding of movement. If the movement itself is of first importance when you say "make your body round like an orange," "Stretch thin and tall like an arrow,' 'Gallop like a wild horse,' "leap over a huge puddle," "or "Feel strong force from inside and strike out as in anger," such words can be effective." She goes on later, "Dancing about things can be a stumbling block unless and until the basic elements have been grasped. When you put aside all the gimmicks and ideas, you can see dance as an entity. You can present that entity clearly to the children, and they can grasp it easily. When it becomes theirs through exploration, they can use it as a personal expression. Later they will see the relationship of stories, designs, music, and feelings. Then they will be able to dance about all kinds of ideas because they will have learned the nature and province of dance." She goes on later that, "At that later date, when the children danc about wild horses, the freedom and wildness will appear in individual ways , because each child will relate her or his own dance experience and capcity for movement to the idea." "One may choose not only to gallop but also to leap and to jump. Another may elect to make quick changes in tempo or may choose to roll and stretch slowly. A third may make twisted pathways with great force or prance lightly with carefree turns. Each choice will be individual because each child will be using the lements of dance in a personal way." This is everyone's preference. I feel there is times for children's fun in there own imagery and a time to express themselves as they grow older. A little of both is good. If is means it keeps the interest of the child and they can relate to the learning through the imitation than it is good. There will be a time soon enough for their seriousness. The author goes on to explain,"Show wildness, freedom, and horselike movement, how can they possible attempt it and truly be shoosing and directing their own movements unless they have had experience with the elements of movement first? Talk about movement first and horses second. Elements are the first step; imagery and ideas the second step." She goes on to direct that,"the use of imagery there are three phases:
1. Images that lea to movement;"make your bakc round like an orange."
2. Images that arise from movement:; "You're in a round shape. What else do you know that's round?'
3. Images as a basis for movement: "What kind of movement might an orange do?""
Then she goes on to talk about "Images that lead to movement" She goes on to say that while the children " are experimenting with the craft of dance, it is sometimes helpful to relate the movements they are doing to things outside the body. They "sway like a branch in the wind," "creep like a lion," "grow like a flower," or "jump like popcorn" "now jump like a firecracker,""jump like a kangaroo." This use of imagery can be limiting, however, unless the focus is kept on the movement rather than on the image." She goes on later to say, "The focus and intent must remain on the elements of dance. If the focus is placed on the image-popcorn- you might find the children pretending they are popcorn, instead of dancing. They might een pick at each other and pretend to eat! They may discover many ways of jumping like popcorn. They may do small "jumps" with their shoulders, their backs, or their legs. They may get larger and larger. They may cover space and use directions. The trouble is , they may not."
She goes on, "With children, imagery is very strong, and it can limit their exploration. Older children may be more experimental in finding ways to use the elements of movement in a popcorn dance, bu smaller children will think more about the popcorn than about the jumping." in other words challenging them to make a jumping dance? Going from a small to a large shape with sharp light jumps is more educational and challeging than pretending to be popcorn. Talk in dance language and not in image language. Then the children will talk and think and act in dance, and they will develop dance skill and knowledge." She talked of another mistake in which she asked them to collapse like ice cream." when she realized they gained a lot more if she just told them to simply show her a collapse. She goes on to say,"the focus is on dance language and skill. Children can see the goals and aims of dance class much more clearly when the teacher knows what she or he wants to teach. They will later dance from images more thoroughly, creatively, and beautifully when they discover for themselves the relationship of imagery to dance. They will become aware of the rhythm of tension and release in sports activities and stories; they will delight in shape and form in painting, in the direction and force of wind and water, in the changing shapes of human feeling. In the meantime, each child will take great joy in direct awareness and control of his or her body in space and the ability to express and communicate through movement." Nest she goes on into "images that arise fom movement." She says,"The second step in the use of imagery is to let an idea or image emerge from the movement. When a child likens a movement to something else, it can be a sign of growth. The child is aware of relatedness." she goes on to explain, " When a teacher asks, "What do you know that moves like thaaat?" the answers sometimes are astounding. A lesson on bones made the children think of lightning and scissors; a lesson on breath elicited clouds and the ocean; and a lesson on muscles bought forth monsters and cement mixers. When a child's answer has no relationship to the movement or when the relationship is unclear, then the class can discuss the differences and theby come to a closer understanding of the movement." she goes on to say, "It is often good to stimulate the imagination in this way, and the children come up with fantastic ideas. Sometimes you'll want to go right on to something else; at other times you may want to follow through with one or two ideas that seem most relevant and stimulating to the children. In that case, you can structure the idea through questions just as you would if the idea came before the movement-as in the third phase of imagery she says is different than the first and second phases that are spontaneous, that they arise simultaneously with study of the elements of dance. In the third phases of imagery as the basis for dance the author explains it through a couple more of her mistakes. She told of how the children wanted to do a dance about a tree that comes alive and she let them form it but it came out like a drama and a pantomine instead of expression through dance. She then took them aside in the next dance lessons and showed the a chart of what dance lements they had learned. "They reviewed body moves and steps, levels, directions, size, force, and time. Then we made simple combinations of a body move(collapse) with a step(skip), or a size (small) with a move (twist) or a step(gallop). They found that some combinations were possible and some were not. They were highly stimulated by the challenge and kept running back to my chart to check on other combinations. Then I had them each choose one of the following elements: time(fast and slow), force(sharp and smooth), or size(big and little). They were allowed to use any body moves, any directions, any levels, and any steps, bu they were challenged to find as many movements as they could and to perform them in their chosen category, either fast and slow, big and little, or sharp and smooth. Then I asked them to feel whether their movements would more likely fit a person or a thing around the tree. Some decided they were children, some were toys. When we finally arranged the dance, there was a real concentration on moving with contrast, not pretending. It was dancing, not pantomiming. They really had not swallowed and digested what I had been teaching. I should have stressed their creative use of the elements earlier, and I should have directed their development of ideas by teaching them to think in movement terms. I had only presented the elements to them, and had not shown them how to use elements in a way that would be creative." In otherwords children must be guided to express presentations in forms of showing feelings and actions through the dance not the dance as a drama itself.
The author says she had another similiar experience when the children wanted to dance about death. She said, "We discussed the kinds of movements people do when someone dies-around the bedside, at the church, at the grave. We also discussed the kinds of feelings an individual might have that could be expressed in movement." some were going to dance of excited frenzy at the home, the next planned to do a funeral march, an the third a church scene. The children could not think in full terms of action. They could only think of praying at the church, marchers marching, and family only running to thell the neighbors. It became a pantomime. "it would not have been a dance because the actions or movements were concerned with function rather than expression." She felt if she "had discussed the idea in terms of the elements of dance. I think we would have had success. I should have asked, "what kind of body shapes do people assume when death is at hand? What kind of focus? What kind of force? What tempo? Show me some sad or grief-stricken shapes. In what direction would the movement go? By using movement words, I should have made clear the relationship of the idea to dance." In otherwords she felt the outcome would have worked.
The author goes on to explain that "Great dancers can communicate depths of feeling through movement. In their work the craft and the feeling become one. In order to approach this oneness, dancers must begin at the beginning. They must first learn what the body can do and how it can be done. Art grows from exploration, experimentation, and creative use of its elements." she feels it is important to work on the basic craft of dance first. Then to let ideas arise from the movement so that the children become aware of the kinds of ideas that are suitable to dance. Then thirdly, after the basics are extablished and explored, ideas and images can be presented as problems or assignments; otherwise, children fall into drama and pantomime.
Grandma feels that if drama and presentations are about expressing the thing, feelings, actions, everthing is expressed in creative dance through a movement, then if those expressions are taught along with the movement then you are carrying one stone with another, Teach the movement and its elements but then use action, things, feelings to also develope it so you are developing one thing with another and making it easier later because the children will have the whole idea and use it more easily.
The next two chapters the author covers are "The Methods" and "The Priorities", then she will cover the "Elements." For now just work on movements, direction, steps in the form of emotions expressed in the action of movement in whatever you are learning.
The author said that Four- and five-year-olds can isolate parts of bodies, do all the body moves, and do most of the steps of walk, run, leap, jump, hop, gallop,skip, and slide. They seem to love to gallop. Maybe because most children love horses and that it is a challenge to ride them. They will learn to slide sideways.
She also said, "Kindergartners love making shapes." She also says their understanding of place, pathways and focus may have to be worked on some, but they understand level, direction and size. They can explore force factors in the extremes as sharp-smooth, heavy-light, and tight-loose. She says, " Control over the time factors of beat, speed, and accent is often evident, and movement is often related to sound, but these skills are usually developed later." She also said, "little ones love working with fast and slow, and they often show definite rhythmic skill.
Then the author says, "Six- to eight-year-olds are more skillful in their control of all these factors, and are able to remember and repeat their dance movements. They relate to time and space with more understanding."
Then she says, "Nine- to twelve-year-olds can control their moves with greater physical ability. With their heightened mental awareness, they can explore in depth all the elements of dance in all facets. They enjoy group work because of their social development and their spac-time awareness. They can readily experiment with relationships."
She also mentioned that their age limits can vary so don't go specific by them. I don't feel we always take into account that some children mature faster than others. Some might me advanced mentally yet not as well physically. Just be carefull not to expect more than they are capable of doing. Be patient and try to seperate different movements at different levels of development. For little ones may only be able to concept movements that are simple and only a little at a time where your older children can do so much more and want to. Therefore, again you may have to rely on some of their patience along with yours to help the littler ones or make extra movement for older children to do as keeping the littler ones with only a few. You may have to make seperate songs for each. You have to be the judge for that in your own situation and what you can handle.
Reading and Language, writing
Next we will work on our calendars of birthdays and the weather. You might talk strongly on the actions that are happening with our weather outside and the things that have been happening all year long with different areas of the globe due to the global warming and what could happen which may take some research. It is a pretty hard project to go into your own region and find out certain elements of your land, why certain things happen in your region and what could happen and why. For instance one class I had to take in college was Geography and we learned how our region of the rivers where big glaziers and the land was formed into limestone that has a tendency to erode away easily, therefore, it forms big dropoffs on the edges through erosion. These things are all part of learning.
We must cover three days of birthdays and later events from book 1 today. Under September 28 Frances Elizabeth Willard, American reformer and women's rights advocate was born in 1839. You can talk about that a little if you wish but it may come up later. Then in 1909 Al Capp, creator of the comic strip "Li'l Abner" was born. Then September 29th, Horatio Nelso, British admiral was born in 1758. In 1901 of that day Enrico Fermi, Italian-American physicist who produced the first sustained nuclear chain reaction. In 1923, Stan Berenstain, children's author and illustrator, cocreator of the Berenstain Bears was born. I hope you have one of he and his wife's books to read later. For it says in book 1 that stan and his wife, Jan, through the Berenstain Bears wanted children to be excited about what books they read. Book 1 says to ask your children about books they enjoy reading. See if they can picture the scenes in their minds. Remind the to take the pieces they may be wirting and make sure they make them clear to the reader. Also as my additive idea ask the students what makes the Berenstain Bear books different from others and if they get more out of them than other books. This also may lead you into talking about book reports and starting them.
For now we must finish on the birthdays. September 30, William Wrigley, founder of the Wrigley Chewing Gum Co. was born in 1861. Then in 1882 Hans Geiger, coinventor of the Geiger counter(which I am blank about right now so hope you can find what it is for the children.) Then in 1916 Alvin Tresselt, children's author was born in 1916.
History, Reading , Social Studies, Language, Writing, Math, Art, Science
For our events from book 1 , in 490 BC A Greek soldier ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens with news of the Greek victory ove the invading Persians. This is how the word marathon originated. If you have an atlas have the children figure the distance of the alleged run. Then if you have an almanac to look on the one at the library and find out the host cities for the 10 most recent Olympics, and locate the cities on a map.
Now on this day of September 28, 1781 American soldiers under George Washington began the Siege of Yorktown, the last major battle of the Revolutionary War. September 29, 1650 The First Marriage Bureau was established in London. In 1789 The United states established a Regular Army with a strength of 700 men. Now September 30, 1681 William Penn wrote a letter describing the layout of Philadelphia, His "City Beautiful." For it says in book 1 he was the owner of the largest land area, Pennsylvania, ever held by one citizen. He wanted to convice others to move to his colony." Book 1 wants your children to make a list of reasons why people might want to live in their community.
The next two books I am going to go into and use from here on are what I numbered 15a and 15b. They together are called the Multicultural Math books even they go into some history, language, science, art, and Social Studies. It was written by Sharon Vogt; illustrated by Catherine Yuh; 1994, 1995 by Carson-Dellosa Publishing Co., Inc, Greensboro, NC 27425
Book 15a starts out with information on clocks. It goes into the general History of clocks. She says,"The stracking of time has undergone many changes over the years. From the first cave dweller to today's high-tech scientist, people all over the world have found creative ways to measure time." The book is designed to describe clocks used over the years and people who used them. The projects to be presented are creative in nature and require critical thinking of the children. The book suggests doing them over several days instead of all in one day to help the student keep organised in thoughts. Give it time to sink in because they are going to do some projects with them afterwards. The first is a Water clock. The history on them is as follows: "The water clock, or clepsydra(CLEP-si-dra), was invented by the Egyptians around 2000 BC. It has been used throughout the ages by various cultures, including China, Greece, Rome, India, and Europe.
The first clepsydra was most likely made of a vessel of water with a small hole. The water dripped through the hole at a consistent rate that was controlled by the size of the hole. The inside of the container had markings. People knew wat time it was by the level of the water remaining in the vessel. The people in india told time with a very similar water clock. A small vessel with markings and a small hole was placed inside a larger container holding water. Instead of the vessel emptying, it was filled. The water level would continue to rise inside the vessel to each of the markings to tell people what time it was, Eventually, the vessel would sink. In the morning, the vessel would be brought up from the bottom of the container and the process would begin once more.
In later years more extravagant water clocks were created. The poser of the water was used to turn the hands of a clock, case metal balls to fall on a bell to sound the hour, and even to open doors and cause figures to move, much like modern-day cuckoo clocks. Harun-al-rashid, the ruler of Baghdad in 807 AD, sent charlemagne, the Emperor of the West a clepsydra as a present. This water clock was made of gold and bronze. It had 12 doors, one for each hour. At the top of each hour a door opened and small metal balls fell onto a brass bell to sound the hour. At twelve o'clock, a horseman appeared in each doorway. "
Have the children look at the countries that used water clocks. What must be true about thier climates in order for the use of clepsydra to be possible? Why might Africans or Icelanders not find a clepsydra useful?
Making Your Own Water Clocks
Water Clock 1
plastic cup pin paper jar
pensil tape stopwatch pitcher of water
The children are to:
1. Cut a small strip of paper about the same height as the jar.
2. Tape the strip of paper to the jar. This strip is for making time markings.
3. Using the pin, make a small hole in the bottom of the plastic cup.
4. Place the cup in the opening of the jar by attaching it with several peices of tape, then fill the cup with water. Immediately begin to time the water by making markings on the strip of paper showing the height of the water at the end of each minute.
5. After all the water has dripped through the hole in the cup, have a discussion with your children about their water clocks. Below are a few questions you may wish to work on.
What do you notice about the markingsyou havemade? Is there the same amount of space between each you have made? Is there the same amount of space between each marking? Why or why not?
How much time did it take forone cup to empty? How many cups would be needed to fill the jar? How much time would it take to completely fill the jar? How many jars are needed to time a math class?
Use a measuring cup or spoon to find the amount of water that dripped through the hole in one minute. Measure the amount of water that dripped in five minutes. If the jar was big enough, how much water would be needed to time one hour? One day?
Water Clock 2
a 2" x 4" piece of wood five clear plastic cups
(cut in half) nails
pitcher of water
1. Nail two pieces of wood together in a perpendicular fashion. Like a T with one piece as a flat base and the other upward from the middle(like a stick with its 4" width across the 4" width of the bottom one
2. Use a nail or a thumbtack to make a hole in the bottom of each of the four cups.
3. Tape a small strip of paper to the outside of the cup without a hole. Time markings can be made on this strip.
4. Use thumbtacks to attach the five cups to the upright piece of wood. The cups should be placed vertically, One directly above the next. Make sure the cup without a hole is the bottom cup.
5. fill the top cup with water and immediately begin timing.
6. Make a note of the amount of time it takes one drop to get from the first cup to the second, then to the third, and so on until the first drop reaches the bottom cup.
7. Once a significant amount of water is in the bottom cup, wait until the next full minute comes around and make a mark showing the water level.
8. Wait the same amount of time before marking another mark. For example, if the first mark was made at five minutes, make the next mark at 10 minutes, the next at 15 minutes, ect.
9. Make one final mark and note the time when all the water has dripped through to the bottom cup.
Activities and Questions for Discussion
How long did it take one drop of water to reach the bottom cup? How many drops of water dripped through the water clock in five minutes?
Use a measuring cup to find the volume of the water that passed through the water clock. Estimate the amount of water needed to last the entire school day.
What would happen if one more cup were added to the water clock? Estimate the amount of time it would take for all the water to drip through the water clock.
Test your estimate.
"Looking at calendars of people acrossthe world helps us to learn more about them and their cultues. Some calendars are based on the revolutions of the sun, others on the cycles of the moon, and others area combinaation of both. Some calendars are very similar to the gregorian calendar and share some of the same holidays; others are very different, with holidays that rotate each year.
The Gregorian calendar is a corrected form of the Julian calendar (introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC), introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 and now used in most countries of the world. It provides for an ordinary year of 365 days and a leap year of 366 days every fourth year, exclusive of century years, which are leap years only if exactly divisible by 400."
Throughout the next few pages we will study several different calendars including several world calendars proposed throughout the years. After involving your children in several calendar activities, choose one or more of the following projects to explore the lesson. These projects are ideal for groups of three to four students and should be completed over several class periods.
Now as part of my own ideas in here. Grandma wants you to think about how they may have done certain cooking before we had the invention of a stove. She wants you to find out different things they have learned about outdoor cooking as how to make coffee in high altitudes and cooking pancakes. IGrandma wants you to think about how we fry things but in times before they many times cooked wild animals and had to prepare the food different. Some people cooked everything in a pot outside or rotisery style. They even dug pits covering the food in leaves and putting it on hot coles and covering it with leaves and dirt. Can you think of various food and how it was done. Then Grandma wants you to plan to cook some beans, split peas, or lentils or/and some meat. Figure out the seasonings and all to go with it. Tomorrow Grandma will try to give you some ideas.
Grandma will keep covering topics from here on of various things still trying to stay to the times.(right now before 1800's) Another little project I thought about might be to discuss the part of the bible in a matter of time division so it will help the children understand it some also. I have some more lessons for older students to start presenting this week also. Tomorrow is the first day of October and may present some different ideas. Therefore if you are finished with breakfasts conclude it if not then keep it going. IGrandma has some reading about whales for you a few other things to give to you, concerning the summer weather. Be sure to work on your journals, yearbooks, and newspapers. Have a good day tomorrow.