Day 17
The Best Place to Learn From - Is The Best Place for Learning

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Home Educaton Program

Day 17

OK! Welcome to Grandma's Place of Natural Learning Center if you are new to our Home Education Program. We are working on colonial development with the onset of Canada and Mexico at hand, not forgetting to learn about the Native Americans of course.However, Grandma has found some materials on World Wild calendars she feels is important to cover at this time.
Be sure to carry out your duties, responsibilities, or tasks for the day and be sure to say your prayers and read the bible along the way.
Do something for Childrobotics today. For Creative dance it should be a little less information than yesterday The author is talking about the Method. She says, "The elements of dance...are basic to life.  Each time you move you use the elements. You lower your level as you step into the bath tub , you stretch to reach for a jar on a high shelf, you use force to raise a stubborn window and to flick crumbs from the table. You twist to talk to the person behind you. You shake you head. You run for the bus." She goes onto say, "You must become so cnscious of the elements and so familiar with them that you can call upon them instantly as you teach."
Elements of Dance
Body                   Body parts                          Inner: muscles, bones, joints, heart, lungs(breath)
                                                                     Outer: head, shoulders, arms, hands, back, rib cage,
                                                                               hips, legs, feet
                           Body moves                        Stretch, bend, twist, circle, rise, collapse, swing,
                                                                     sway, shake
                           Steps                                  Walk, run, leap, hop, jump, gallop, skip, slide
Space                   Shape                                 Body design in space
                            Level                                   High, middle, low
                            Direction                              Forward, backward, sideward, turning
                            Size                                    Big, little
                            Place                                  On the spot, through space
                            Focus                                  Direction of gaze
                            Pathway                              Curved, straight, zig-zagGrandma's aditive)
Force                    Attack                                 Sharp, smooth
                            Weight                                 Heavy, light
                            Strength                               Tight, loose
                            Flow                                     Free-flowing, bound, or balanced
Time                     Beat                                     Underlying pulse
                            Tempo                                  Fast, slow
                            Accent                                  Force
                            Duration                                Long, short
                            Pattern                                  Combinations
Next she talks about the Structure of a lesson saying it" has three steps:"
              1. "Present the element you want to teach"
              2. "Have the children explore its possiilities."
              3. "Give it form"
She goes on to say, "The metod used should be one of questions and challenges. The children need to learn from the inside out. They need to find out for themselves what their bodies can do. So, remember: even in the simplest tasks, ask them, don't show them.
She says, "In presenting the element to be learned, first use any visual aid, words, materials, or gimmicks that make clear what it is the children are to learn. For a lesson on swinging, you might bring a pendulum made of a string and a weight or a yo-yo. Rubber bands, feathers, soft clay, plastic bags, and the like can help clarify movement characteristics such as stritch and collapse, lightness and heaviness, change in size, and change in tempo. Windows, clocks, flags, and pictures have shapes, and the pathways of their designs can be reflected in movement." She also point out to be sure to ask How, Why, Where, When, and What.
                       "How does the body swing?"
                       "What makes a swinging movement?"
                       "What parts of the body can swing?"
                       "Where does a swing go in space?"
"present, suggest, and define until they know what the element is." She goes on to explain the you should "experiment each movement first on the spot and then through space."..."try it with different parts of their bodies....try all the stemps with the ll levels and in all directions...experiment with its opposite....change the speed and force of the move.'
Then she explains that you "find the right questions to ask to make the exploration fruitful crossing over to another element and asking the children to perform the two elements together." She called it "the crossover technique." To explain this the author used a body part. She said,"find questions by crossing over to body moves and steps and to the remaining three elements: space, force, and time."
                         "body steps: ask how this part can move while the feet do steps
                          space:        have the children change shape, level, and direction
                                            with that part leading
                           force:         have them try to make the movement of that part sharp
                                            and smooth, strong and light, tense and loose
                           time:          ask them to move the part quickly, slowly, with accent,
                                             in a pattern"
She also pints out, "it is impossible for any part of one element to be used without also using the other
three elements, but, to simplify matters in teaching, first consider an element as a separate entity and then vary it by combining it with others." She goes on to demonstrate with a swinging movement and asking the questions:
                  What body parts can swing?
                  What really swings-muscles? Bones?Joints?
                  Can you swing and bend? Swing and stretch? Swing and shake?
                  Can you swing while you skip? Gallop? Run?
                  Find an upside-down shape. What can swing now?
                  Can you swing at a low level?           
                  In how many directions can you swing?
                  Can you use a swing to propel yourself through space?
                  Can you use a swing to make a curved path in space?
                  Can a swing be sharp?
                  Can it be strong?
                  Can it be tense?
                  Show me a free-flowing swing and then sudden stillness.
                  Can you swing and find a new balance?
                  Show me a swing with an even beat.
                  Show me an accent at the law part of the swing. Show me one at the crest.
                  How slowly can you swing?
                  Can you make a long swing and then some short ones?
                  Can you swing in an uneven pattern?"
Next she talks about "breath movement". She says, "ask the children to breathe deeply to find how their bodies move as they breathe. Then have them extend that movement until they change levels, rising on the inhalation and sinking on the exhalation. Next, change the speed, using gasps. Then increase the force until the intake becomes a jump. Have them move around the room, through space, carrying themselves forward as they inhale and relaxing as they exhale. Challenge them to try gallops, skips, and leaps with a breath impulse. Finally, forget the actual breathing, and concntrate on the kind of movement it produces."
Then she talks of exploring fast movement in saying, "the children can discover which body parts can move fast, which moves and which steps can be done fast. Ask them, "What do you know that moves fast and low? Fast and sideward? Fast and small? Fast and sharp? Fast and light? Fast and free?""...going on to say, "combining two, try combining three, four, five."...."a fast, high, light, small, sideward move."
Then she goes on to talking about "form." "When you have asked every possible question, structure the children's learning into a simple form. They can choose particular movements, working alone, with a partner," "The form is
            1. Starting shape
            2. varied movements selected from their explorations
            3. Ending shape
Shape, movement, shape"
Then she says, "ask the children to choose and put together severl ways to use breath movement."
She said you can play music at this point and saying, ""Ready, starting shape, begin." ...after fifteen or twenty seconds call out "and make an ending shape."
The little ones may have a hard time keeping up or doing. Do not draw attention to even the older ones having a hard time. Do not scold or make fun. Try to keep things calm. They can practice more if you wish and have the time.
Calendars and Birthdays
History, Social Studies, Reading, Language, Math, Art, Science
Birthdays on the calendar out of book 1 include that of James Lawrence, U.S. naval captain remembered for his exhortation "Don't give up the ship." It is October 1 folks and he was born in 1781. It is also Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the United States born in 1924. It is also World Vegetarian Day to commerate people that do not any foods that come from animals. Usually not even cheese or eggs, milk , or ice cream and especially not meat. Can you compile a recipe book for vegetarians or make a list for them. Grandma had a lady that visited that was a vegetarian and we ate a lot of salads.
Be sure to check out your own birthdays, As Grandma was looking over book 15a she forgot there was a part in there about Calendars. Grandma will share part of that with you today. Calendars tell many different things about people all over the world. Some used revolutions of the sun, others the cycles of the moon, and other a combination of both. Some are similar to our Gregorian calendar and share the same holidays; others are different, with holidays that rotate each year.
The Greforian calendar came from the Julian calendar9introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC), introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 anow used in most countries. It has 365 days with 366 in a leap year every 4th year. Century years, are leap years only if exactly divisible by 400.
World Celebrations- New Year is different times of the year for many cultures. Plan to celebrate them when studing that country at different times. A project would be to put the various holidays of different cultures on the calendar. I think Book 1 has some of them. I don't know if it has all of them. For now you will only need those of Canada and Mexico. There is suppose to be some Math activities to use with our Gregorian calendar so we will watch for them.We should watch for difference in weather for different calendars and how the seasons change for them. If you know other people from other cultures as Jewish, Muslim, Chinese... they may explain their calendars to your family.
 As a project you might ask the children if they had a choice would they change the calendar we have?
Would they make any improvements? Did they like anything about other calendars? Do they think the world calendar would be a good idea? Ask them if they would like to make a calendar of their own? If they do incorporate any changes they may want to make on it.
In considering the Gregorian calendar. Think of the activities or weather patterns that occur each month. What qualities seem to predominate each month? Create new names for each of the months according to a primary activity or weather pattern.
With the new names, would the length of the months change? Would their lengths be different from year to year? For instance if you had a Windy Month, would that always start and end on the same days?
Imagine a place where you cannot name each day with a number. How would you know when to celebrate a birthday? Could you find some way of labeling the specific day so that you could celebrate it on the same day each year?Or would it have to be celebrated on different days each year? What would you look for to say it was time to celebrate it again?
In Africa, one week revolves around the schedule of the village market. Why do we have a seven-day week? Would we want to change that?
For most, the week is split up into five days of work or school and two days of rest. Can you think of any people for whom this is not the case?
Some businesses have talked about going to a four-day work week  and some educational reformers would like to see the school week changed to six days or year round school year. With finding of the stress in students at school do you think they will change that? How do you think this could all effect us and do you think our calendar would be changed as well?
Native American Calendars:
Each had their own form of time-keeping, even the Mayan, Aztec and Incas were different from each other. The Mayan calendar was similar to ancient Mexico and Central American. It had two cycles of days. One was a 260-day ritual cycle. The other was a 365-day year. The two cycles ran concurrently, but it took 52 years or 18,980 days for the cycles to meet up again. This time period was called a "calendar round." Their 365-day year was divided into eighteen months of twenty days each. This left five days which they inserted throughhout the year. They called these "days of evil omen."
The Aztec calendar was based on ancient calendars of Mexico, yet it was very similar to the Mayan calendar. It also had two cycles: a 365-day year and eighteen months of twenty days. The  Aztec calendar was used to fix festival dates at the end of each month.
Though some do not believe that the Incas had a claendar system. Evidence has shown they had a lunisolar calendar. They have discovered a record of names for twelve months and these names were referred to in association with festivals and agricultural cycles. It had a nine-day week. Three weeks, or twenty-seven days, is the amount of time between two new moons. Every third year had thirteen moons while the other years had twelve.
Both the Aztecs and the Mayas had sun stones that measured time quite accurately. They were carved stone disks twelve feet in diameter. They probably weighed about twenty-five tons. They were carved with designs representing days, epochs, and gods. The stones were arranged in formations and the shadows they cast enabled the people to tell the time.
The Chinese calendar was in use earlier than 2000 BC. In 1912, the Chinese government started using our calendar. But the people would not change over til 1930 being forbidden to use their ancient calendar.
 The older Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar. It means that their monts are governed by the moon, but the year is governed by the sun. Each full moon or new moon starts a new half-month. Their calendar consisted of 24 half-months. Each month was 29 or 30 days in length giving the a year of 354 days. The propblem with this is that it takes the earth 365 1/4  days to travel around the sun. However, with our calendar the full moons do not coincide completely with our year. To reconcile the loss in time, the Chinese added seven months onto their calendar every nineteen years.
Another fact about the chinese calendar is their twelve-year cycle. Each year is assigned an animal name. These animals are used just as the symbols of our zodiac signs are used. People born in a particular year are said to have personality traits similar to the animal assigned to that year.Also used to tell fortunes?
The lumar months of the Chinese calendar is ten days difference than the Gregorian. How does this affect the year for them? How will it affect their holidays? What are the benefits of a Lunisolar calendar? What problems are caused by it?
Determine the number of months with 29 days and the number of months with 30 days. Using an astrological chart showing the times of full and new moons, determine what animals are assigned to your family members' birth years. Are any of the animals examples of your selves?
The Chinese added seven months onto their calendar every 19 years. If someone was bornduring that time, when do you think he would celebrate his birthday? How would you reconcile the lunar and solar year?
Jewish Calendar
The Jewish people believe that the world was created in 3761 BC. This is when their calendar begins. They do not use BC and AD, They use a.m., or "amno mundi," which is Latin for  "year of the world." Their year begins around the autumnal equinox, September 23, and theirs is the oldest calendar still in use today.
This calendar, like the Chinese calendar, is lunisolar. There are twelve months that alternate between twenty-nine and thirty days. The Jewish culture must also reconcile its lunar and solar years and does so by adding a thirteenth month every third, sixth, eighth, eleventh, fourteenth, seventeenth, and nineteenth year in a nineteen-year cycle. Other adjustments are made to ensure that the feast of passover always follows the first day of spring.
Christians use the Jewish lunar calendar to designate many  of their holidays.  Easter is always on the
first Sunday following the full moon that falls on or after the first day of spring. This is why easter falls on a different day each year.
Hanukkah is a Jewish celebration of light that is celebrated in December as is the Christian celebration of christmas, The celebration of Hanukkah starts on the 25th day of the month of kislev. Though it always falls on the same date on the Jewish claendar, this holday falls in November or December of the Gregorian calendar, but not always on the same date.
Questians and Activities
Since the Jewish calendar does not use BC and AD, its years are numbered differently. What is the number assigned to this year? and to your birth?
Jewish people reconcile their calendar by adding seven months to various years during a nineteen-year cycle. How often is an additional month added? Is there any pattern to when they are added? The Chinese also add seven months onto their calendar every nineteen years. What is important about a nineteen-year cycle? Why do both cultures reconcile their calendars using the same number of months and the same cycle?
Why does Hanukkah fall on different days on the Gregorian calendar yet on the same day on the Jewish calendar? Why does Hanukkah always fall in November or December and Not continue into January sometime during the nineteen-year cycle?
Many Jewish holidays are listed on the Gregorian calendar. Find out more about these holidays and when they are celebrated on the Jewish calendar. Compare calendars of several years. How have the holidays moved each year?
Muslim calendar
The Muslim calendar began in 622 AD because the prophet mohammed was driven from Mecca at this time. This is assigned the first year in the Muslim calendar. When Mahammed became leader of the Muslim people, he revised the lunisolar calendar in use at that time. He forbade the addition of days or months to reconcile the calendar. The Muslim holy book. The Qur'an(Qu'ran or Koran), directs the people to use a lunar calendar. They believe the lunar cycle is a guide for holy people in their religious observances. This calendar is still in use today.
The Muslim calendar has twelve months consisting of twenty-none and thirty days alternately. Their year consists of 354 or 355 days, which is about 11 1/4 days shorter than the solar year. That means that each month starts eleven or twelve days earlier each year than the previous year. Their months do not coincide with the seasons as the Gregorian calendar does. In fact, every 32 1/2 years the months are completely reversed with the seasons.
Holidays and birthdays are moved as well.These special days stay on the same set date on the calendar, but since the months move through the seasons, so will the holidays. Imagine trying to celebrate July 4 in the middle of winter.
How many yers does it take for the Muslim calendar to make a complete cycles:/ Challenge: If the muslim calendar year started on Jan. 1 of the Gregorian New Year.?
Imagine your birthday moving around  on the Muslim calendar. Calculate the day on which your birthday would land next year. On what day would it have been last year? Using the answer to the previous question, determine all the dates your birthday would land in a five-year period.
The Muslim calendar began in 622 AD. What year is it acccording to the Muslim calendar? In waht year were you born in the Muslim calendar? If you kept track of your birthdays on the Muslim calendar, would your age be any different? If someone using the Muslim calendar says he is 66 years old, how many solar-years old is this person?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of never reconciling the calendar to the solar year?
African Calendars
Just as daily time is often measured by nature and activity, in Africa, weekly, monthly and yearly time are measured this way as well. Many Africans do not have a year set by a predetermined calendar. One year ends and another begins when there has been a full cycle of the seasons. Since the cycle of the seasons changes, many Africans do not have a written, numerical calendar.
They do have a way of measuring time. Depending upon the area in which one lives, a week could be three, four, five, six, seven, or even eight days. Many times the week corresponds with the village market. For example, in parts of West Africa, the days of the week are named after the villages where markets are held on each particular day. Each village has its own particular day of rest once a week or every two weeks. On this day of rest, people visit with friends, work on their hobbies, go to market, etc., but tey do not work.
Months are noted by the changes of the moon and are usually named according to a primary activity or weather condition. Months could be named, "the hot month," "the weeding month," "the bean harvesting month," et. Each month does not have a set number of days. The event occurring in that month is of greater importance.
People keep track of time for important events by measuring time themselves. A pregnant woman counts the number of moons to estimate the status of her pregnancy. In some areas, the husband carves notches in a stick to measure the length of the pregnancy. On the day of the child's birth, the husband carves something of significance about the day on the stick in order to remember when the child was born. The stick is given to the child as a gift when he is older.
World Calendar
Business is a real problem. when it comes to two different calendars. Because it is a problem would like to see everyone convert to a World calendar. The International World calendar Association is one such group. The calendar they propose revises the one we currently use so that each quarter  of the year has the same number of days. This revision for which many businesspeoplehave been hoping. This uniformity would make it easier to calculate income, payroll, etc., more accurately..
This makes a total of 364 days , an additional day would have to be added to make it a 365-day year
The World Calendar Association proposes adding an annual World Day celebration to the end of December. It would be called December 31st or December w and would be observed as aan international holiday.  Every  fourth yearanother day would have to be added. They suggest adding another World Day at the end of June also to be celebrated as an international holiday.
One problem, The Universal Calendar Society has another plan. They would like to see a thirteen-month calendar consisting of twenty-eight days per month and making Monday the first day of the week. They would call the thirteenth month Solarius and place it between June and July. Like the International World Calendar Association, they would also add a holiday at the end of the year.
Discuss the advantages and disadvanages of having a World Calendar. Research the history of calendar reform in the U.S. Government and the reasons why some do not support such a change.
Carefully look at both calendar suggestions. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each plan? Which calendar would you rather use?
Brainstorm reasons why having the same number of days in each quarter of the year might be beneficial.
Create your own World Calendar. What improvements would you make on the calendars currently in use?
This may be an awful lot of material for one day. Grandma just could not see breaking it up on you.All the questions and activities will take time to do so take your time and work on it in between other items. Till tomorrow!

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