Good Morning Folks!
I do hope you have had plenty of activities for the younger children to do. I will give you some more ideas this morning. I will try to enter more of them after the history. Just remember to count things. Kindergartner's are required to count in all ways up and down to 100 and back. Some can be learning to add and subtract things and concepting adding problems. They should be learning to socialize by talking about things, to people, and expressing themselves as well as beginning to learn about themselves. Their likes and dislikes, all children should be learning these things.
One thing that can be done besides smowmen and play in the snow, you can do all kinds of measuring with them. However, start out with measuring with other forms of things to measure with so the children concept that an inch compared to a centimeter are just units of measurement with a certain object as a ruler.
One fun thing for them might be to draw shadow pictures of slaves or Martin Luther King.
Doing snowflakes is always fun, however, my girls I watched enjoyed doing them with cut out newspaper hearts. The magazine "Family Fun" Grandma received this month showed a big flake of newspaper taped together to make a big flake on the floor. The whole idea of snowflakes is to fold them and cut various half shapes along the fold that makes a hole in the flake of that shape. The magazine also showed hearts hung up on a line that the history could be glued on or put in between in places. Pictures could be glued on them or put on with the old corner holders ladies used to use. Shapes could also be cut into plain white paper and be put on the colored or shapes cut into the colored. Decide for yourself and use your imagination.
Once the family is done with responsibilities this morning or if you do exercizes first and then your tasks, it is all good. Do your dancing for the day. Great grandma at 84 is doing a dancing routine tape with Grandma. However, grandma just came out of a full scale surgery last year and is just getting some strength back. Great grandma plays bridge all week long, handles her home, and all the grown grandchildren as well as us three children. She is a very active and busy woman. She still has time to have fun, cook, and pet the animals. We are really beginning to understand each other when we have had many misunderstandings and really do some opposite things of each other. She is really a great woman, the world will something special when they loose her. However, as I told her last night, God may surprise her and carry her life till she is over 100.
Let's go into our bible lessons from Faith Alive now. Grandma is going to cover Ezekiel today.
Faith Alive first gives the following questions:
How...does Ezekiel show us God's love? Through Ezekiel, God promises his people in exile that he is still watching over them and will someday restore them. Though they are far from home, God has not forgotten them and still loves them. The people feel as if they are dead, but God would raise them up. God would do all of this because of the Messiah, Jesus, who would be like a Shepherd to care for them.
Whom...did God inspire to write this book? The prophet Ezekiel, who was with the exiles in Babylonia, wrote this book.
When...was this book written? Ezekiel was written between 593 and 571 BC
What...special messages does this book give us? The first part of Ezekiel shows why God must punish the wicked people still in Judah. The second part shows that God would bring his people back to their land and rebuild their spiritual relationship with him. Ezekiel teaches these things by acting out many of his prophecies and by describing many visions. These visions, such as in chapters 37 and 40-48, and some of Ezekiel's prophecies, such as in chapters 38-39, are illustrations, picture language. They do not give us details of how events will actually happen.
...are some important chapters in this book?
Ezekiel's vision. Ezekiel 1,10
The attack on Jerusalem acted out. Ezekiel 4
Wickedness in the temple. Ezekiel 8-11
Ezekiel, God's watchman. Ezekiel 33
The Messiah as Good Shepherd. Ezekiel 34
The vision of dry bones. Ezekiel 37
Faith Alives also brings out things in "Life In Bible Times-Living Creatures-Ezekiel describes these "living creatures" in much detail. Read Ezekiel 1:10-14 to find out what their faces were like. The living creatures were special angels, called cherubim. They must have been awesome to see, with their four faces and four wings and the fire and lightning that came with them. Read Ezekiel 10 to find out more about them.
Let's Live It! Ezekiel 2:9-3:3 Eat This Scroll!--In a vision God told Ezekiel to eat a scroll, a rolled up book. It was like a dream, but guess what? The scroll tasted good, sweet! The Lord was showing Ezekiel that God's Word, which he would preach, is pleasant--good for us, too.
Ever eaten a fruit roll-up? Ask your mom to buy one at the grocery store. It's fruit, pressed thin and rolled, like a scroll. You'll like it! Sweet! It's 100 percent fruit, so it's good for you. Enjoy a delicious and healthy treat, like God's Word!
Life In Bible Times-Worship Toward the Temple-When God's people were away from the promised land, they were supposed to pray with their faces toward the temple (1 Kings 8:42-43). When Daniel prayed while he was in Babylon he faced God's temple (Daniel 6:10). But the people Ezekiel was describing were praying with their backs to the temple. They were facing east, the direction most pagan people faced when praying.
Did You Know? 12:3 How did Ezekiel prophesy without words? God had Ezekiel act out things that would happen. Ezekiel 12 tells how Ezekiel acted out what would happen to the people of Jerusalem when that city was captured by the Babylonians.
Life In Bible Times-Plaster Walls-Sometimes the walls of a building would be covered with lime plaster, called "whitewash." This made the wall look smooth and beautiful. But the stones in the wall had to be strong and had to be correctly laid. A wall that was poorly made would collapse no matter how good it looked.
Life in Bible Times-Clothing-In Old Testament times people wore graceful, simple clothing, usually made of wool or linen. Most wore an inner tunic of finer cloth next to the body. Over that they wore a looser outer tunic, held at the waist by a belt made of cloth or leather. For cold weather Old Testament people wore a woolen cloak, which they used as a blanket at night. To protect their heads from the hot sun, both men and women wore a square of fabric draped over the head and held in place with a band. They usually wore leather sandals on their feet.
Let's Live It! Exekiel 20:39-44 God Can Change People--In Ezekiel's time some of the people of Judah worshiped idols. Read Ezekiel 20:39-44. God tells them that he is unhappy with what they've been doing, but then he tells them what would happen in the future. The people of Judah would again worship God and would be very sorry for what they had done wrong.
Jesus' forgiveness changes people. Knowing we have a fresh start and that God loves us that much, we want to be loving to others. Pray that friends who don't know Jesus will be changed, too.
Life In Bible Times-Trade-Ancient nations have traded goods since very early times. Most goods were carried from place to place by camel caravan, but ships were also used. Soloman was the first Hebrew to organize trade by camel caravan and ship. The countries involved traded a wide variety of exciting as well as ordinary items: spices, gold and silver, bronze and iron, Ivory horses, fabric, turquoise and rubies, wheat, oil, wine, rugs, lambs and goats.
Life in Bible Times-Cedars of Lebanon-These tall cedar trees made the best wood in the ancient world. The wood was strong and long-lasting. Insects that attack wood do not like the smell of cedar wood, but people do like it. Masts of ships are well as the walls of God's temple in Jerusalem were made from the cedar wood of Lebanon.
Life in Bible Times-Watchmen-Watchmen stood on the high walls of a city to watch for enemies. Their job was to warn the citizens of dnager. God wanted Ezekiel to be like a watchman and worn his people of the danger in disobeying the Lord.
Let's Live It! Ezekiel 33:14-16 A Promise for the Wicked--Ezekiel brought good news. God loves even a wicked person, and God will forgive all who turn to him in faith. Read Ezekiel's good news in Ezekiel 33:14-16.
You can bring this same good news to others. Tell them about Jesus. Invite them to church and Sunday school where they will learn more about him. By being loving and forgiving to them you can help them know that God loves and forgives.
Did You Know? 37:1 What Was the Valley of Dry Bones? The valley of the dry bones was a vision, like a dream, that God gave Ezekiel. The dry bones represented the exiles, who were scattered in a distant land without hope. God showed Ezekiel that someday they would come back to Israel. Fifty years later King Cyrus permitted them to return to Palestine. Ezekiel's vision reminds us, too, that because of Jesus, God forgives us and will raise us again from death."
Calendar Birthdays and Events
January 24 1870 William Morgan, American physical education instructor credited with the invention of volleyball, was born. Then in 1968 Mary Lou Retton, American gymnast, was born.
There are no events for the 1700's but one for the 1800's in which James W. Marshall discovered Gold at Sutter's Mill, Calif. in 1848. January 24 is also the beginning of a Bolivian festival, Alacitis during which the Aymara Natives in La Paz celecrate their god of prosperity, Ekeko. They make little figurines of the god--ajolly fellow who carries a backpack--and fill it with tiny pots, clothing, food, or other items they need. In turn, they hope that Ekeko will provide them with these necessities.
There are two birthdays on January 25 which is Saturday. One is in 1759 in which Robert Burns, Scottish poet, was born. Then in 1914 a children's author, James Flora, was born.
In 1890 Reborter Nellie Bly, completed an around-the world trip in 72 days, 6 hours, and 11 minutes. Book (1) says that, "After reading Jules Verne's Around the World in Eighty Days, report Nellie Bly decided to go the fictional hero Phileas Fogg one better. She rode ships, trains, carriages, tugboats, sampans, rickshas, horses, and burros--and beat Fogg's time by 7 days, 17 hours, 48 minutes,and 46 seconds. Have the students collaborate on a modern-day travel story. First, create a character and choose an around-the-world route--beginning and ending in your hometown--that the character will travel. (You needn't choose the most direct or even an eas-west route.) Then select as many points along the route as there are students in your class, and assign each student one point. Each student will write about how the character gets from his assigned point to the next point along the route. Encourage research so the kids will be able to describe locales, cultures, and customs; discourage kids from having the character merely "take a plane." Put the descriptions in order, add magazine photos when possible, and bind into a book."
In 1895 Tchaikovsky's ballet "Swan Lake" premiered in St. Petersburg, Russia. Grandma is going to add this one for the 1900's of 1905 in which The World's Largest Diamond--3,106 carats--was discovered in South Africa.
Book (1) also points out that January 25 is also National Eye Care Month and it would be a good time for the children to learn about the eyes and important things to do to keep them healthy. Book (1) points out in an activity to have the children list activities that might be harmful to the eyes. How about rubbing them with dirty hands, using power tools without goggles, or looking directly at the sun. They could make eye-care "Warning" posters.
Now for History out of the history book:
The Beginning of the Civil War
People to learn about include:
Robert E. Lee; Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson; George McClellan; David Farragut; Ulysses S. Grant
Places to learn about include:
Fort Sumter; Manassas; Bull Run: Antietam Creek; Sharpsburg
Vocabulary to learn is:
rejoin; ammunition; border states; draft; Anaconda Plan; prey; income tax; defensive war
Focus on Main Ideas include;
1. How did the Civil War begin?
2. What were the different goals of the Union and the Confederacy during the Civil War?
3. What advantages did each side have during the Civil War?
4. What happened during the early battles of the war?
Shots Fired at Fort Sumter
"Seven Southern states had formed a new nation called the Confederate States of America shortly before Abraham Lincoln became President." " On March 4, 1861, Lincoln became the President of a divided nation. In his inaugural speech, he asked the South to rejoin the Union and to avoid war. He told the South, "we are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies." But within a few weeks they were at war."
"Then shots were fired on Fort Sumter." "Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. South Carolina, belonged to the United States Army. But the Confederates said that the United States must give Fort Sumter to them because it was on Confederate land. Lincoln refused to surrender the fort. Instead he sent ships with supplies for the Union soldiers at Fort Sumter.
The Confederates said that it was an act of war for the Union to send supplies to a fort on Confederate land. So on April 12, 1861, the Civil War began with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter. On April 13, the Union soldiers at the fort ran out of ammunition and surrendered. The Confederates had won the first battle." "Taking sides in the Civil War
Each side had different goals during the Civil War. The Confederates were fighting to have their own independent nation. The North was fighting so that the South would remain part of the United States. Ending slavery was not Lincoln's goal in 1861. Lincoln did not talk about the issue of slavery because eight slave states still remained in the Union. These states were called border states because they were between the Union and the Confederacy.
"After Fort Sumter, four more states left the Union. Part of Virginia would not seceded and became West Virginia, a Union state, in 1863." The other three were Tennessee, North Carolina, and Arkansas which made 11 states for the Confederacy. "What city was the Confederate capital?" "Richmond, Virginia, became the Confederate capital. People in the western part of Virginia did not want to secede with the rest of Virginia. They formed the new state of West Virginia when they joined the Union in 1863.
Four other border states--Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri--decided to remain in the Union. These states were very important to the Union. Maryland and Delaware were close to Washington, DC, the Union's capital. Missouri and Kentucky controlled the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. The North used these rivers to move soldiers and supplies. Because of the border states, more than 400,000 slaves were in the Union throughout the war.
As soon as the Civil War began, both sides began to form armies. Union soldiers wore blue uniforms. Soldiers in the Union army were often called "Yankees" or "Yanks." People called Confederate soldiers "Rebels" or "Johnny Reb." Confederates wore gray uniforms."At first many of the men volunteered thinking the war would not last long; "often joking they would be "home in time for dinner." But as the war dragged on and thousands died, many more soldiers were needed. Both the union and the Confederacy passed draft laws that required me to be soldiers.
Each Side Had Advantages
...The Union had almost four times as many soldiers. With almost 23 million people, the Union had a much larger population. The Union also had more money to pay for the war. Union farms grew more food. Most of the nation's factories and railroads were in the North. During the war, the North's factories produced its needed weapons, ammunition, and supplies. The North used its railroads to move its troops and supplies.
The Confederacy seemed to have few advantages in 1861. The Confederate states had less than nine million people. Forty percent of those people were slaves who were not allowed to fight in the war. The confederacy had less food and fewer factories, soldiers, and railroads. But the people in the Confederacy were fighting to have their own nation. They were willing to fight very hard for their cause. Southerners fought on their own land, which they knew well. The greatest advantage was that General Robert E. Lee would not fight against his own state of Virginia and joined the Confederates. For the history book says he had a strong love the the United States and told the Confederates after the war to "make your sons Americans." He had graduated from the Academy at West Point, second in his class and worked as an army officer. He fought very well in the Mexican War with the other important generals of Ulysses S. Grant, George McClellan, and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson.
Abraham Lincoln asked him to fight with the Union but he couldn't do that. "Lee hoped the Southern states would not secede. Lee loved the South, but he hated slavery. He had freed the few slaves he owned...Lee believed the Southern states had the same right to leave the Union that the 13 colonies had when they separated from Great Britain....Lee became famous for his brilliant battle plans. Although his army was much smaller than the Union army, Lee defeated the Union Army again and again. When he won battles, Lee praised the work of his soldiers. When battles were lost, he took full blame upon himself.
By April 1865 Lee knew that it would not be possible for the South to win the war....Although many Confederates wanted to continue fighting, Lee told them to go home and become good American citizens again. After the war ended, Lee tried to heal the anger between the North and the South.
Robert E. Lee's birthday, January 19, is a legal holiday in most Southern states. Lee continues to be respected as one of the nation's greatest generals.
Planning and Paying for War
To defeat the South, the North decided to use the Anaconda Plan. It was named for the South American anaconda snake that crushes its prey to death. The North planed to capture the MIssissippi River and divide the Confederacy in half. The Union also planned to capture Richmond, the Confederate capital. Northern ships would blockade Southern ports to stop the Confederacy from receiving supplies from Europe. The blockade would also prevent the South from selling its cotton to Great Britain and other nations.
To pay for the war, Congress passed the nation's first income tax laws. Americans had to give some of the money they earned to the federal government. The government also sold war bonds to raise money to help pay for the war.
The South planned to fight a defensive war. Southerners would fight on their own land and defend it. The South thought that the Union would grow tired of fighting and would decide to surrender. The Confederates were also hopeful that Great Britain would provide them with supplies during the war.
To pay for the war, the Confederacy placed taxes on many different products. The Confederate government also sold war bonds. But as the war destroyed farms and businesses, few Southerners had money to buy bonds or to pay taxes. The South did not have enough money to pay for the war, so there was not enough food and ammunition. The lack of supplies weakened the Southern army.
Confederate Victories in the East
The first major battle of the Civil War took place in Virginia, near a town called Manassas and a stream called Bull Run. On July 21, 1861, 30,000 Union soldiers fought 22,000 Confederates in this battle. Union troops seemed to be winning early in the day. But Confederate troops led by Thomas J. Jackson held their position and helped turn the battle into a victory. "Stonewall" Jackson became one of the South's best generals. After this battle the Union knew the war would not end quickly.
President Lincoln asked General George McClellan to command the Union Army in the East. McClellan trained 150,000 men to fight against Lee's army. But McClellan was too cautious. He refused to attack Lee's army at times when he could have defeated the Confederates. General McClellan's goal was to capture Richmond, Virginia. He tried to do this in the Battle of Seven Days in June 1862. But Lee defeated McClellan, and the Confederate capital would be safe for more than two years. In September 1862 the Union army fought the Confederates again at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Once again Lee defeated the Union army.
While the Confederates held back the Union forces in the East, the Union was winning battles in the West along the Mississippi. The Union navy captured the port of New Orleans. After capturing New Orleans, the Union controlled the southern part of the Mississippi River.
Confederate leaders hoped that Great Britain would help them fight the Union because the British bought cotton from the South. If the South won a major battle in the North, the British might support the South. So President Davis and General Lee decided to invade Maryland. Unfortunately for Lee, his battle plans were found by one of McClellan's soldiers.
On September 17, 1862, Lee led his army against the Union near Antietam Creek outside the small town of Sharpsburg, Maryland. It was the bloodiest day of the Civil War. Thousands of Confederate and Union soldiers died, and thousands more were wounded during that one day of fighting.
The Battle of Antietam became a Union victory. Lee was forced to retreat to Virginia. But General McClellan foolishly waited 19 days before he attacked Lee's army again. President Lincoln was furious with McClellan for waiting. He believed McClellan should have followed Lee's army, destroyed it, and forced Lee to surrender. If McClellan had done that, the war might have ended in 1862. Soon after Antietam, Lincoln chose another general to command the Union army.
The Union victory at the Battle of Antietam made Great Britain and other European nations decide not to aid the Confederacy. Because the Union had won an important battle. Lincoln felt the time was right to act against slavery."
"Review and Apply...
Match the vocabulary word or phrase in Group B with its definition in Group A.
Group B Group A
A. draft _______1. This was the name of the war between the North and the South.
B. Anaconda Plan _______ 2. Union soldiers ran out of this and were forced to surrender
C. Civil War _______ 3. These were states that were between the Union and the
D. income tax _______ 4. This was the way that the North planned to win the war.
E. defensive war _______ 5. Congress used this to raise money for the war.
F. border states ________6. This was the way that the Confederacy planned to fight the war.
Journal Writing--Imagine that you are General Lee or General McClellan. You are writing a report about your victory at one of the battles.
Write the Answer
1. Why did the Union and the Confederacy fight over Fort Sumter?
2. Explain the North's plan for winning the war.
3. Explain the South's plan for winning the war.
4. Who was Robert E. Lee, and why did he decide to fight for the Confederacy?
Comparing and Contrasting"--Finish and fill out the chart below, comparing the North and the South in the early part of the war for each topic listed below.
TOPIC NORTH SOUTH
Reasons for Fighting
Comparing Circle Graphs
One circle shows the Union the other shows the Confederacy
with a Total population of with a population of 9,000,000
In following this Graph of and this Graph of
96% whites 58% whites
2.5% slaves 40.2% slaves
1.5% free African Americans 1.8% free African Americans
Study the information from these two graphs and use your knowledge about multiplying percents to choose the correct answer for each question.
a. 5,220,000 __________1. The Union had more than______white people in 1860.
b. 575,000 __________ 2. The slave population in the Confederacy was about________.
c. 22,000,000 __________ 3. The slave population in the Union was about____________.
d. Union __________ 4. There were fewer than one million African Americans in the
e. 3,600,000 __________ 5. The white population in the Confederacy was about_________.