Good Day Today! I hope everyone is doing fine. A reminder of tasks and Childrobotics as well as music and dancing.
The History through the Calendar and the time line using Book (1)
January 31, Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, was born in 1797. Jackie Robinson, baseball star who in 1947 broke major league baseball's "color barrier", was born in 1919. In 1941 Gerald McDermott, children's author, was born. Then in 1947, Nolan Ryan, baseball pitcher who holds the major league record for strikeouts. Book (1) talks about the K club. To celebrate the birthday of strikeout king Nolan Ryan by examining the history behind the "K"--the symbol for a strikeout. Tell your (children) that Henry Chadwick, a New York sportswriter, invented the baseball scorebook. He thought the letter S could stand for single, shortstop, or stolen base, so he used the letter K--the last letter in the word struck--to indicate a strikeout. Have any of your (children) ever tracked a baseball game on a scorecard? What other symbols are used?
The last birthday on January 31 is of Phil Collins, English singer and musician, born in 1951.
The event for the time line which goes along with our studies is of 1865 when Congress proposed the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery in the United States.
Grandma is going into the History Book now.
After the Civil War the South went into what they called "The Reconstruction Years" which is the last chapter in the book. Then Grandma will back up and cover the beginning of the 1800's.
The People to cover in this chapter are Andrew Johnson; Edwin Stanton; Blanche Bruce; Samuel Tilden; Rutherford Hayes; Homer Plessy; and Booker T. Washington.
The Places covered include the Hampton Institute and Tuskegee Institute.
New Vocabulary includes the following:
Reconstruction; oath; Radical Republicans; freedmen; Civil Rights Act; campaigned; due process; public office; impeach; carpetbaggers; scalawags; sharecroppers; Ku Klux Klan; poll tax; literacy; clauses; and segregation.
Focus on Main Ideas are:
1. How did the Republicans help African Americans during Reconstruction?
2. Why were the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments added to the Constitution?
3. What changes took place in the South after Reconstruction?
"Plans for Reconstruction-Lincoln's goals for Reconstruction were to reunite all of the states and to rebuild the country. Lincoln planned to allow Southern states to rejoin the Union if one tenth of their voters would take an oath to be loyal to the Union. One group in Congress, which became known as the Radical Republicans, disagreed with Lincoln's plan. They believed that the South was to blame for the war and should be punished. Lincoln vetoed the harsh Reconstruction plan passed by Congress. Before Lincoln and the Congress could compromise on a plan, Lincoln was assassinated.
Vice President Andrew Johnson became President. Johnson had a Reconstruction plan that was like the plan Congress had passed, but the Radical Republicans rejected it. The Radical Republicans believed that Johnson's plan did not punish the South enough.
The Radical Republicans became furious when people who had been Confederate leaders were elected to Congress and to state governments. They were also furious when Southern states passed laws called Black Codes. These laws treated African Americans as if they were still slaves. Congress created an agency called the Freedmen's Bureau to help the freedmen, slaves who became free after the Civil War. The Black Codes in the South said freedmen could only work as farmers or house servants. Freedmen had to carry special passes when they traveled. They could not serve on juries or vote. Since the Republicans controlled Congress, they decided to use their power to change what was happening in the South.
Congress and Reconstruction-The Radical Republicans created their own Reconstruction plan. Their first action was to pass a Civil Rights Act in 1866. This law said that African Americans were American citizens and had equal rights under the law. Next the Republicans wanted to add the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. President Johnson campaigned against the amendment and the Radical Republicans. Despite Johnson's campaigned against the amendment and the Radical Republicans. Despite Johnson's efforts, Republicans won control of Congress in the election of 1866. The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified in 1868
The Fourteenth Amendment has been called the Equal Rights Amendment. The amendment said that all people born in the United States were citizens of their state and the nation. This included African Americans. The amendment also said that states could not make laws that took away the rights of citizens. States had to give all people due process under the law.
In 1867 the Republicans passed the Reconstruction Act. The act had five parts. First, any state governments in the South that had been created under Lincoln's plan or Johnson's plan were not recognized by Congress. Instead federal troops would be sent to rule the South. Second, people who had been Confederate soldiers or leaders could not vote or hold public office. Third, all other white men and all African American men could vote and be elected to public office. Fourth, Southern states had towrite new state constitutions that guaranteed African American men the right to vote. Fifth, all Southern states had to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment before they could rejoin the Union.
Johnson vetoed Congress's plan for Reconstruction, but Congress passed it again and the Reconstruction Act became law. By 1870 all Southern states had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment and had rejoined the Union.
The Impeachment of Johnson"-Because the Radical Republicans disliked Johnson for opposing them they wanted to remove him from office. The House of Representatives can impeach a President if he commits crimes and be put on trial in the Senate. One third of the senators who do not find a president guilty, is not enough for him to stay in office; for if two thirds find him guilty, he looses his job. Congress had never impeached a President but in 1868 the House of Representatives did impeach Johnson by accusing Johnson of not carrying out the Reconstruction plan and breaking the Tenure in Office Act. They had passed it to have power over his office. It said that he could not fire anyone without the Senate's approval. When the President fired Edwin Stanton, the secretary of war, Congress impeached him. His trial in the Senate lasted three months. They needed 36 votes to find him guilty. Only 35 senators voted therefore he was able to keep office till his term finished even though they all felt he was a bad president.
In November 1868, Union war hero, General Ulysses S. Grant was elected President. The African Americans being able to vote helped him win. He did a poor job as President; for many of the people he appointed stole money from the government. Yet in 1872 he was relected to a second term. Under Grant the Fifteenth Amendment became part of the Constitution in 1870. "This amendment said citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of their race." African Americans could vote but Women still could only vote in Wyoming.
"The South During Reconstruction-During Reconstruction the South was controlled by three groups--carpetbaggers, scalawags, and African Americans." Carpetbaggers were called this because travelers carried their clothing in bags made of carpet material and came from the North. They "really tried to help the South, but many used their power to get rich. Scalawags were white Republican Southerners. They became the largest group in Reconstruction governments. Before the war, most scalawags had been small farmers. After the war they wanted the power that had belonged to rich plantation owners. Most former Confederates hated the scalawags.
African Americans had a small role in government while the Union Army controlled the South. During Reconstruction many African Americans were elected to public office in state governments. Also, 22 African Americans were elected to Congress. Two of these men became senators. One of these two senators was Blanche Bruce form Mississippi. In the Senate, he worked to help African Americans, Indians, and Chinese immigrants win equal rights. Bruce was respected because he was an honest senator who cared about helping different groups of Americans.
African Americans in the South After the Civil War-After the Civil War, there were four million freedmen who had no money, no land, no jobs, and no education. The Freedmen's Bureau gave African Americans and poor whites food, clothing, and medical care. It started new hospitals and more than 4,000 public schools. The Bureau also started several universities for African Americans."
Most Freedmen could only make money farming as sharecroppers in which they shared their crops with landowners they had to rent land, seed, tools, and animals from. It left them with very little left on their crops. Therefore, they remained very poor.
Then in 1866 White Southerners started a secret organization called the Ku Klux Klan in which they wore white hoods and robes, beat man freedmen trying to stop their new rights. Many feedmen were killed by the Klan.
"The End of Reconstruction-In 1872", under Grant, "Congress passed a law that allowed most Confederates to vote and hold public office. Once that happened, Democrats slowly won control of the South just as they had before the Civil War."
There was a big argument during the 1876 election of Democratic Governor Samuel Tilden of New York and Rutherford Hayes of Ohio that each side was cheating during the election. Congress created a special committee to choose the President and they chose Hayes after Democrats and Republicans worked out the Compromise of 1877 in which Hayes agreed to remove all federal troops from the South. He also promised to use federal money to build southern railroads. In March 1877, he became the new president and reconstruction ended.
"The South After Reconstruction"-Even though the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments took many years to give the African Americans much equal right, they finally helped them. Southern governments passed laws that had taken many rights away. One required voters to pay a special poll tax to vote and many poor could not. Then they made the pass a difficult literacy test. These were then placed with laws they called the grandfather clauses. These clauses allowed poor whites to vote but most African Americans not to. Then goverments in the South began to pass segregation laws that seperated whites from black in schools, hotels, beaches, churches, and restaurants.
"In 1896 the Supreme Court protected segregation in a case called Plessy v. Ferguson. Homer Plessy, an African American wanted to ride in the same railroad cars as white people. The Court ruled against Plessy and said that states could pass segregation laws to keep African Americans and white people apart. However, the public places for African Americans had to be equal to those for whites. Whites used this decision to carry out segregation until the 1950s."
Biography of Booker T. Washington 1856-1915
-born a slave, but became an important African American leader by advising governors, Congressmen, and two Presidents on how to help African Americans
-became free when nine years old
-wanted an education very badly, so he went to school at Hampton Institute, and became a teacher
-In 1881 started the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama to teach African Americans different trades to get better jobs
-Many of his students became teachers who later started their own schools for African Americans
-principal at Tuskegee for 33 years
-wanted African Americans to have better jobs to earn more money and then buy their own land to have more power to improve their civil rights
-delivered a famous speech, the Atlanta Compromise
-asked whites to be fair and give African Americans better jobs
-told African Americans to accept segregation and not ask for equal rights, that they would earn them as they earned more money and recieve better treatment
-some disagreed and felt African Americans should fight for their rights
-is remembered as one of the most important African American leaders during the years after Reconstruction
"Review and Apply"
"Write the letter of the word or phrase that best completes each sentence.
1. An oath is a ______. 4. To impeach means to _______.
a. promise to be loyal a. be elected to a public office
b. proposed law b. be charged with a crime in order to
c. plan be removed from public office
c. be chosen to run for political office
2. Freedmen were people who ______. 5. Sharecroppers rented land from
landowners in return for _______.
a. passed the Black Codes
b. wanted to stop slaves from gaining a. money
their freedom b. labor
c. became free after the Civil War c. crops
3. The Civil Rights Act said that African 6. A poll tax had to be paid so that a
Americans _______. person could ________.
a. were American citizens a. own land
b. had to pay for their freedom b. move to another place
c. could not hold any public offices c. vote
More is coming for today! Grandma wants to remind parents to make sure the children are doing book reports they can do of books they read. Make sure to keep researching about different animals and insects. Later Grandma will give a list for you to go by to catch what you may have missed. If anyone knows of anyone that wants a Mentor for their children let me know. I live in the Omaha area and would like to work with older children later with my materials. Be sure to make historic paper dolls and regular doll clothing as well as costumes if you have time and you can. Grandma is going to try some special pot holders, aprons, doll clothes, covering animals, quilts, clothing, etc. later. I will also do my best to give some advice in real estate and enterpeneur work as well as some other things. Make sure the children try to do some journal writing, work on the yearbooks, and keep the newspapers going. Try various cartoons by starting with shapes or Alphabet letters and draw from there it can be very beneficial. The children can try any drawing they wish. I have loads of drawing my sons now at 37 and 35 did when they were young of spaceships, airplanes, and such. One is selling insurances as well as managed two computer stores and the other was a physics major and working on computers. The oldest blood grandson just joined the navy to help with nuclear power. Grandma is very proud of them all. I wish I knew all I know now when they were growing up, life would have been simpler.
This next activity involves what they call a graphic organizer in which they have a topic as the one they are covering(Reconstruction) of the South with other topics involved in it. The topic (Reconstruction) is featured in the middle and lines are drawn to the topics involved. In this case it is four different questions. Sometimes and more often the other topics are just one word. This can be done for any subject, lesson, or object. In the case used they have placed it in as a "Comprehension Check-Understanding Events in History--Complete the graphic organizer below with information about Reconstruction.
What are President Lincoln's plan What was the Radical Republicans'
for Reconstruction? plan for Reconstruction?
____________________________ Reconstruction _______________________________
What effect did the Black Codes How did the Freedmen's Bureau help
have on Reconstruction? the South during Reconstruction?"
The next activity used involves "Critical Thinking-Distinguishing Relevant Information--Imagine you are telling a friend about Reconstruction in the South after the Civil War. Read each sentence below. Decide which sentences are relevant to what you will say. Put a check in front of the relevant sentences. There are four relevant sentences.
_______ 1. President Lincoln cared about Southerners.
_______ 2. President Johnson and the Radical Republicans disagreed over Reconstruction plans.
_______ 3. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments were added to the Constitution.
_______ 4. Radical Republicans tried to impeach President Johnson.
_______ 5. Carpetbaggers, calawags, and African American Republicans controlled the South during
_______ 6. Samuel Tilden ran for President in 1876."
"Using Information-Writing an Opinion--After the Civil War there were different ideas about rebuilding the South and bringing the Southern states back into the Union. Write a parapgraph explaining which plan of Reconstruction you would have supported."
Unit 4 Review fill in the blanks with the words given below. There may be one or two not used.
"1854 1861 impeach
secede Dred Scott Reconstruction Supreme Court
railroads generals General Grant Gettysburg
Union property Richmond vote
Nat Turner Vicksburg Equal Rights assassinated
Slavery continued to trouble the nation during the 1800s. After ____________________________
led a slave rebellion, slave owners were afraid that there would be more rebellions. The Kansas-Nebraska
Act of _______________________________ allowed the question of slavery to be decided by popular
sovereignty. In 1857 the Supreme Court made a decision about a slave named___________________
____________________. The Court said that Scott was still a slave and all slaves were
___________________________ so they could be taken to any part of the country. After Abraham
Lincoln was elected President, the Southern states began to _____________________________.
Lincoln said that his goal was to save the _______________________________. The Civil War
began in _________________ when South Carolina attacked Fort Sumter. The Confederates had
better____________________________, but the Union had more money, soldiers, supplies, and
In 1863 the Union won the three-day battle at__________________________, Pennsylvania. To
win control of the MIssissippi River, General Grant laid siege to _________________________,
Mississippi. In April 1865 the Union captured the Confederate capital of____________________,
Virginia. General Robert E. Lee knew he could not win the war, so he surrendered to
____________________________ at Appomattox Court House. On April 14, 1865, Abraham
Lincoln was_________________________________. In 1867 Congress passed the
____________________Act so the South could rejoin the Union. In 1868 the House of Representatives
voted to__________________________President Andrew Johnson. The Senate did not have enough
votes to find Johnson guilty, so he finished his term as President. The Fourteenth Amendment, often
called the___________________________Amendment, was ratified in 1868. In 1870, the Fifteenth
Amendment gave African Americans the right to__________________. After Reconstruction ended,
it became very difficult for African Americans to vote."